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Thread: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

  1. #1
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    Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    Thought that I’ll start this thread to share with FORUM community some interesting stuff I have come across.

    It would be great if we could provide links with short description.

    Regards
    wermouth


    ExRx.net (Exercise Prescription on the Internet) is a free resource for the exercise professional, coach, or fitness enthusiast featuring comprehensive exercise libraries (>1400 exercises), fitness assessment calculators, and reference articles.
    http://www.exrx.net/index.html



    Journal of Applied Physiology.
    The Journal of Applied Physiology publishes original papers that deal with diverse areas of research in applied physiology. Most of the papers are free and if somebody wants to improve their knowledge about EMS, energy systems, physiological systems, adaptation etc… in my opinion this is the website to see.
    http://jap.physiology.org/search?ful...t=yes&x=6&y=11



    Article: Muscle Genes and Athletics Performance
    The cellular biology of muscle helps to explain why a particular athlete wins and suggests what future athletes might do to better their odds.
    by Jesper L. Andersen, Peter Schjerling and Bengt Saltin
    http://me.umn.edu/labs/hmd/lab/docs/muscle-genes.pdf

    wermouth

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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    Newtonian Model of an Elite Sprinter: How Much Force do Athletes Need to Produce Each Step to be World Class?

    by Jeremy Richmond


    ABSTRACT


    A model is presented of the force and power produced during a world record sprint to provide coaches and athletes with a method to determine how much force to use during strength training and what velocity to train at. In addition to specific velocity of strength training, the coach or athlete can estimate the biomechanical position of the athlete by determining that position for the relevant step so that training can be specific to the movement pattern of actual sprinting. The model is determined by using empirical data to develop relationships between the variables of time, velocity, instantaneous velocity, contact time and distance travelled over each individual step. The formula used for the Newtonian model is applied to an athlete, Matic Osovnikar, and shows weakness in the strength of one particular leg above a certain velocity during steps 6, 8 and 10. The lack of force produced by that leg results in negative velocity of the athlete during steps 8 and 10. From the comparison of data from Matic Osovnikar with the Newtonian model, a suggestion is for the athlete to undertake velocity specific and movement specific strength training of that leg to improve performance during steps 6, 8 and 10. This may improve the overall sprint performance for the athlete.
    http://www.elitetrack.com/article_fi...-sprinting.pdf



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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    Biomechanics Of Sprint Running: A Methodological Contribution


    Elena Bergamini


    ABSTRACT

    The continued increase in running popularity has prompted a comparable explosion of research in the last decades. This has been further potentiated by recent technical and technological advancements. The current state of knowledge about the major findings in sprint running biomechanics is presented and a brief overview of the current technologies used in the assessment of running is provided. Many variables have been studied pertaining to the different phases of sprint running. Significant factors include: technique, electromyographic activity, kinematics and kinetics. Sprint technique has been analysed during the block start, acceleration and maintenance phases. The EMG activity pattern of the main muscles is described in the literature, but there Is a need of further investigation, particularly for highly skilled sprinters. The reaction time of good athletes is short, but it does not correlate with performance levels. The force-power production and the force impulse during the block start phase are key factors in order to generate high velocity. Nevertheless, they proved to correlate with the incidence of knee-related injuries. During acceleration and maintenance phases, the reduction of the horizontal braking forces and the maximisation of the propulsive forces are crucial in order not to decrease velocity. Leg and vertical stiffness are sensitive parameters for the optimization of performance and, at the same time, for the reduction of injury risk. Several external factors, as footwear, ground reaction surface and air resistance, may influence the athlete’s technique and performance. Efficient sprint running requires an optimal combination between the examined biomechanical variables and such factors. Interestingly, while a large number of studies focused the determinants of the performance, there is a general paucity of scientific works showing definitive relationships between either anatomical factors and injury, or biomechanical measures and injury during sprint running. As concerns technologies and methods for sprint running analysis, although traditional measurement devices such as motion capture systems, force plates, and electromyography are considered as the most accurate methods, they suffer from limitations, such as expense and lack of portability. Recent technological advances have made available more viable options such as accelerometers, electrogoniometers, gyroscopes, and in-shoe pressure sensors. Combined with wireless technology and/or data loggers, they appear to be an affordable, lightweight alternative to running analysis, allowing data collection over prolonged periods of time in almost any environment.

    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/354...elena_tesi.pdf

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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    ABSTRACT

    Biomechanical investigations of sprint start technique and performance


    N. E. Bezodis, University of Bath, 2009


    The start is an important part of any athletics sprint event, and has thus been the focus of considerable biomechanical research. However, relatively little is known about how differences in technique beyond the ‘set’ position can influence the consequent performance levels. A series of empirical and theoretical investigations were therefore undertaken to advance the understanding in this area.
    Initial investigations revealed the importance of appropriately quantifying performance. Horizontal external power production provided the most appropriate measure and was subsequently used to quantify the success associated with different aspects of technique. Block phase analyses of 13 trained and three international-level sprinters highlighted the importance of increasing hip extension and the rear leg push. It was revealed that over-extending the frontankle could impair performance due to an unfavourable increase in push duration. Empirical investigations of the first stance phase in international-level sprinters revealed the importance of configuration at touchdown - positioning the stance foot further behind the centre of mass and generating a large gravitational trunk-segment moment appeared beneficial for performance. Joint kinetics patterns were identified which assisted performance by augmenting horizontal centre of mass translation during stance.

    To further investigate the first stance phase, a seven-segment angle-driven model was developed. Model evaluation revealed kinematic and kinetic outputs to match reality with a mean difference ranging from 5.2% to 11.1%. Individual-specific simulations identified alterations to stance leg angles at touchdown which influenced the centre of mass position and gravitational moment of the trunk, and consequently performance. Increases in the backwards velocity of the toe at touchdown and reductions in ankle dorsiflexion during early stance also improved performance by increasing the rate of horizontal force development. The combined empirical and theoretical understanding therefore highlighted several aspects of technique which could be altered in an attempt to improve sprint start performance.


    http://opus.bath.ac.uk/17188/

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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS AND FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF D. ROBLES,
    WORLD RECORD HOLDER AND OLYMPIC CHAMPION IN 110 M HURDLES

    José Luis López, Josep Maria Padullés and Helena Josefin Olsson
    GREAF, University of Vic, Vic, Spain
    INEFC, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

    ABSTRACT
    A biomechanical analysis of the athlete Dayron Robles’ hurdle race was carried out using state-of-the-art technology, along with the Spanish record holder Jackson Quiñónez. Robles is a world record holder and an Olympic champion in the 110 metre hurdles. Kinematic data is provided, which offers a detailed analysis of Robles’ hurdle race and is related to his performance in strength tests. We reach the conclusion that the high levels of reactive strength, with very short ground contact times, are Robles’ main characteristics in comparison with Quiñónez. In addition, an excessive flight time over the hurdle was noted which his trainer, on being made aware of the results of this research, has managed to correct.

    https://ojs.ub.uni-konstanz.de/cpa/a...load/4836/4476

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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    Biomechanical analysis of Colin Jackson's hurdle clearance technique


    By Milan Coh


    New Studies in Athletics 18:1; 37-45 2003



    ABSTRACT


    On the basis of the results obtained by 3 - D kinematic analysis of the 110m hurdles of the World Record holder
    Colin Jackson, important parameters defining a model of hurdle clearance technique have been found. Analysis was made of Jackson's technique over the 4th and 5th hurdles in his race at the Velenje Slovenia 2002 meeting. According to the authoers, efficient hurdle clearance can be defined by the horizontal velocity of the CM during the take-off in front of the hurdle; the height of the CM during the take-off; the velocity of the knee swing of the swinging leg; the flight phase time; the smallest possible loss in the horizontal velocity of the CM during clearing the hurdle; a high position of the CM at landing; a short contact time in the landing phase; and the smallest possible vertical oscillations of the CM, head, shoulders, and hips before, during and after clearing the hurdle. Values for these parameters of Jackson's technique are given and discussed.


    http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct...75097201,d.ZGU

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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    The Most Effective Technical Training For The 110 Metres Hurdles


    By Janusz Iskra


    New Studies in Athletics 10:3:51-55,1995


    Starting from the premise that success in coaching the 110 metres hurdles depends first of all on the athlete's possession of the requisite physical and motor characteristics, the author describes how experience and the adherence to basic sports principles can make it possible to construct a successful training plan for the individual athlete.
    He shows how an analysis of the experiences and methods of successful coaches can be used to select those training exercises which are of universal benefit and how they can best be fitted into the training plan. Ten basic elements of technique training are discussed and copious examples given of exercises and training units by means of which they can be developed.


    http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct...75097201,d.ZGU

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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    Shock Method and Plyometrics: updates and in-depth examination.


    Dr. Yuri Verkhoshansky, has been deemed “The Father of Plyometrics”. Although his main “finding” was that of the shock method, also known as depth jumps. In this presentation, Natalia Verkhoshansky shows the latest contribution and updates of this method, its implications in training the athlete and the taxonomy of Plyometric exercises with the rules of their progressing during the training process.

    http://www.verkhoshansky.com/Portals...lyometrics.pdf

  9. #9
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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    General Adaptation Syndrome and its applications in Sport Training.


    The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) has been looked upon as the benchmark for understanding the stress response to training, thus determining the “adaptations” that will be seen in the athletes. On the base of the latest research on GAS, never published in the West, this presentation shows a new and innovative point of view on GAS, areas that coaches can observe, and how this theory has been adapted sense its inception.

    http://www.verkhoshansky.com/Portals...tions/GAS2.pdf

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    Re: Interesting articles, websites, researches etc…

    Regional Differences in Muscle Activation During Hamstrings Exercise.


    Schoenfeld BJ1, Contreras B, Tiryaki-Sonmez G, Wilson JM, Kolber MJ, Peterson MD.
    J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jun 24

    Abstract

    It is believed that regional activation within a muscle may lead to greater site-specific muscular adaptations in the activated portion of the muscle. Because the hamstrings are a biarticular muscle, it can be theorized that single-joint exercises where movement originates at the hip versus the knee will result in differential activation of the muscle complex. The purpose of the present study was to assess EMG activity in the proximal and distal aspects of the medial and lateral hamstrings during performance of the stiff- legged deadlift (SLDL), a hip-dominant exercise, and the lying leg curl (LLC), a knee- dominant exercise. Ten young, resistance-trained men were recruited from a university population to participate in the study. Employing a within-subject design, participants performed the SLDL and LLC to muscular failure using a load equating to their 8 repetition maximum for each exercise. The order of performance of exercises was counterbalanced between participants so that approximately half of the subjects performed SLDL first and the other half performed LLC first. Surface electromyography was used to record mean normalized muscle activity of the upper lateral hamstrings, lower lateral hamstrings, upper medial hamstrings, and lower medial hamstrings. Results showed that the LLC elicited significantly greater normalized mean activation of the lower lateral and lower medial hamstrings compared to the SLDL (p < 0.05). These findings support the notion that the hamstrings can be regionally targeted through exercise selection. Further investigations is required to determine whether differences in activation lead to greater muscular adaptations in the muscle complex.

    Unfortunately no link to free text however more details about research can be found on the author website.
    http://www.lookgreatnaked.com/blog/c...he-hamstrings/

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